(with David Hilpert; under review)
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the EU and the United States is highly technical. Still, the negotiations triggered large-scale protests among citizens with very diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Why has a complex issue such an enormous mobilizing effect although the economic consequences are either unclear or favorable for the participating regions? We argue that the transparency of negotiations is an important consideration for people evaluating the negotiation outcome. Conducting a survey experiment, we show that non-transparent decision-making decreases citizens’ appraisal of the agreement independent of its outcome: A non-transparent negotiation is, on average, almost 16% less likely to find public approval than an otherwise identical agreement. Our findings have important implications for democratic decision-making in general.